National Security and Worship

National Security and Worship

“The Top Gun National Crises Troubleshooter”, Retired

https://gadflyblog.com/tag/worship

4/28/2018

 

The purpose of this letter is to keep you in the loop of discussions concerning National Security and Worship.  I am presently in discussions with two groups: The Task Force at a local community church and a young pastor (with a college age son) connected with the Southern Baptist Convention.  In regard to justification for “Worship”, both these groups brought forward I Timothy (Paul passing the Gospel Baton to the much younger Timothy) as justification for “Worship”.

As a National Crises Troubleshooter for the past 55 years (with a short break for college where I graduated at the top of my class and received an offer to come to Livermore at the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory where I earned the reputation as “The Top Gun National Crises Troubleshooter”), my interests, of course, include national security.  I learned about national security of the Israelite nation while teaching fourth grade Sunday school at TC.  It appears the Israelites had a slight problem understanding the guidelines that were given to them that would have made their new nation successful.  It also appears the Apostles had a slight problem with understanding the instructions that the messenger (the Representative of the Creator of the Universe, or “RoCoU”) they called Jesus gave to them on His exit from this planet Earth.

The Time Line:

  • The Israelites took the Ten Guidelines for a successful nation as literal commands.
  • The Israelites actually made a religion around these Ten Guidelines they took as Ten Commandments.
  • The Israelites were overrun by their neighbors the Babylonians and their elites forced into exile.
  • While in exile, the Israelite elites recorded the first five books of the Old Testament, which included their Ten Commandments.
  • The Israelites were allowed to return to their destroyed homeland and rebuild.
  • The Israelites were conquered by the Romans.
  • The RoCoU came to Earth as a seed in a virgin called Mary.
  • He grew up in this Israelite community now controlled by the Romans.
  • On obtaining the age of about thirty, He took on his assignment to form a task force that would take his teachings throughout the world.
  • After about three years of teaching and forming this task force, He put into action the path to return back to his home somewhere in the universe.
  • To travel through empty space, His body had to change from matter into energy.  This new body form would enable Him to leave this planet and make His way back home. He had to die and resurrect from the dead to change into this new body form of energy. [i]
  • After His resurrection from the dead and before leaving this planet, He instructed his followers to: “Go then, preach the good news about the kingdom.  Do not lay down any rule beyond what I determined for you, nor promulgate law like the lawgivers or else you might be dominated by it.[ii]
  • What this RoCoU, who they called Jesus, taught his followers during his time on Earth would now be called a paradigm shift.  A new paradigm is not dependent on the old or existing paradigm but is entirely a new way of interpreting the exiting data. [iii]
  • The followers of the RoCoU – the Apostles including Paul (Saul) – could not separate this new paradigm from the old or existing paradigm and what they brought to the world was a hybrid of the old and new paradigm.  In other words, they put their own perspective (spin) on the teachings of the RoCoU.
  • The four books that are now available that present the teachings of the RoCoU without adding their own perspective (spin) to the evidence are: Mark, Luke I & II (also known as Acts), the Gospel of Thomas (thought possibly to be one of the “Q” sources, which was a hypothetical first century list of Jesus’s sayings referenced by both Mathew and Luke, (with a wide range of possible dates from the mid-first century to the fourth century), the Gospel of Mary (attributed to the teachings of Mary Magdalene, but probably written in the second century by non-Jews (Gentiles)). [iv]
  • Athanasius, The Archbishop of Alexandria, who sent out an Easter letter all over Egypt in the spring of 367, ordering believers to reject what be called ‘illegitimate and secret books’…. also included a list of twenty-seven books of which he approved, calling them the ‘springs of salvation’.  Strikingly, the twenty-seven books he names in this letter are precisely those that came to constitute the collection we call the ‘New Testament’ for which this letter provides our earliest known list.“
  • “But apparently some monks defied the archbishop’s order to reject all the rest; instead, they saved and protected over fifty texts from their library by sealing them in a heavy jar and burying them away from the monastery walls, under the cliff where they were found sixteen hundred years later[v] (1945).  Is this then a time capsule?
  • The books of I & II Timothy were evidently written by Paul while he was in chains in Rome. The aged Paul is passing the proverbial torch of the Gospel to the much younger Timothy, who Paul was quite familiar with through Timothy’s mother and grandmother.  Paul, in his first letter to Timothy in chapter 2 of the NIV Bible, is telling Timothy how he wants the women of the church to dress, wear their hair and accessories appropriate for “women to perform good deeds, appropriate for women who profess to worship God.”
  • Considering our National Security is at risk I don’t think the mention of “worship” in I Timothy can justify not following the second of the Ten Guidelines: a successful nation should not be overrun by its enemies!
  • In general, Paul’s theology is that Christians sacrificing their bodies to God as workman for God. This is Paul’s new definition of “worship.”
  • Does this new definition of “worship” exempt us from the benefits provided by the second of the Ten Guidelines for a successful nation?  Or does this new definition result in a nation operating at such a low operating efficiency that their national debt becomes unpayable with their GDP?  As our second president John Adams stated, “There are two ways to conquer a nation: war and debt.”
  •  My personal experience is that people who place their life’s priority on worship cause much of the turmoil in the world.  It seems we cannot all agree on who or how we are worshiping and this results in discourse, both nationally and personally.  It looks as though worship creates “sacred cows” that must be protected to the death.
  • My high school girlfriend did not receive any of my letters when I came out west. She was brought up Catholic and I was brought up Lutheran, so those were justifiable reasons for someone who has a priority in protecting their “sacred cow” to intercept my letters.  When I got her on the phone, planning to attend a 35-year class reunion, the first thing I heard was, “You have a lot of explaining to do!”  She had been searching for me for thirty-five years!
  • When my wife of Catholic upbringing reacted to my joining a Baptist Church (a heretic church as she had been taught), she felt a great need to rescue the children from the heretics and filed and proceeded through with a divorce!
  • My daughter, who was twelve at the conclusion of these divorce proceedings, was in the full custody of her mother and no visitation rights to her father.  My daughter never received any of the half dozen expensive music boxes that I brought to her home with her mother for her birthday and Christmas gifts.  Was her mother protecting her children from the heretics?  What kind of worship do these actions represent?  Is the church of your youth a “sacred cow?”
  • Worship does not create cohesion of those who call themselves Christian, but worship causes discourse not only among Christians, but of non-Christians.
  • I have accounts of two Protestant churches that I’ve been involved with during the past thirty-eight years that illustrate the same point as the two above, and that is that worship creates “sacred cows” that must be defended at all cost even to the detriment of church members in good standing.
  • The Protestant churches have a major inertia problem preventing them from moving forward with new enlightenment.  That problem is professional Christians.  Professional Christians must “preach to the choir.”  That is they have to teach the children and adults of the church the same doctrine as their parents and themselves were taught or these church members will vote with their feet and leave that church for another church, taking their church contributions with them.  This leaves the professional Christians without an income.  Paul, as a tent maker, had the right idea. Paul being supported by the members of his churches was a good idea in theory, but not practical in execution.
  • Then there are those who worship God with a different name or in a different tradition than any of the Christian sects.  Some of these extremists are threating our own national security today!
  • Claiming that we can redefine worship to give a different purpose to our lives, as Paul intended, is well and good in theory but, in practice, the same results are obtained as if these were the worship of idols as stated in the second of the Ten Guidelines for a successful nations!
  • Worship is not mentioned or even given and honorable mention in John chapters 14 & 16.  The focus on the departure from this planet Earth is on the RoCoU sending us a personal advocate, counselor, Holy Spirit, etc. to guide us through this life on Earth.

Summary

 

In regard to national security, nothing that man has thought up could surpass this gift of a personal guide through life. There is no possibility that a “sacred cow” could be made of this gift and therefore not a threat to our national security or discourse within our nation among our citizens.

 

Conclusion

In a nutshell, the Ten Guidelines, Ten Codes of Conduct, or, as the religious demand, Ten Commandments recorded in Exodus chapter twenty were given to a new-forming nation that was given land to build their nation.  These Ten Guidelines, when followed, would give this new nation a high economic operating efficiency.   Their national debt would not be skyrocketing out of control, exceeding their capacity to even make payments on the interest to the loans from other countries.  They would be a stronger nation than their competitors’ nations and would not be overrun by their neighbors.  These Ten Guidelines are all about national security and influence to the world.

Q.E.D.

[i] Albert Einstein, “Theory of Relativity”, E=MC2; Energy and Matter are interchangeable

[ii] The Gospel of Mary, “THE NAG HAMMADI SCRIPTURES”, “THE REVISED AND UPDATED TRANSLATION OF SACRED GNOSTIC TEXTS,”, The International Edition, Edited by Marvin Meyer, 2007, P 742

[iii] Thomas Samuel Kuhn ; July 18, 1922 – June 17, 1996),https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Paradigm

[iv] Ibid iI, pp133-138, p 739,

[v] Ibid iI, pp6-7

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The SINS of the FATHER are PASSED DOWN to the THIRD and FOURTH GENERATION

The SINS of the FATHER are PASSED DOWN to the THIRD and FOURTH GENERATION

Ver. 1.0.4

The Top Gun National Troubleshooter, Retired

https://gadflyblog.com/tag/sins-of-father/

10/29/2017

Introduction

“The sins of the father are passed down to the third and fourth generation” is a quote from the Old Testament of the writer’s observations of history.  Although it is true for fathers and sons as in the case of alcoholism, drug abuse, dysfunctional aggressive communicators, etc. it is also true of the fathers of a nation (the leaders) whose citizen’s sons and daughters and their sons and daughters etc. will be subject to the sins of the fathers of their nation.

On September 11, 2001, democracy changed in the United States of America.  National policy of “We—Win, You—Lose” has been in place since the inception of our nation.  Even in our own Civil War it was “I–Win, You–Lose”.  Negotiating “Workable Compromises” was unheard of even until this day in 2017 with only a few notable exceptions.  Two of those exceptions were the Cuban Missile Crises with Russia during the John F. Kennedy administration when JFK stood alone against the Hawks that wanted to invade Cuba with USA forces and negotiated a “Workable Compromise” with the Russian leader Nikita Sergeyevich Khrushchev, with the aid of the recently developed Polaris Submarine Missile. During the Richard M. Nixon administration when RMN signed a peace treaty with Ho Chi Minh’s representatives of North Vietnam ending USA’s long involvement in South Vietnam, RMN did not have to win the war as his predecessor LBJ proclaimed “He did not want to be the first president to lose a war”.  All other international conflicts have been “We–Win, You–Lose”.

The Peak of Democracy and Freedom in the USA 

September 11, 2001 was the beginning of the massive terrorism attacks, on the USA and European countries, that we are experiencing to day from large terrorists organizations.  These terrorist organizations such as ISIS and ISIL had their beginnings during the Bush Administration primarily involving the President, Vice President and the Secretary of State.  The Iraq leader appeared to be massing weapons of mass destruction (WMD).   A low ranking thud was evaluated to prominence in the Sunni Muslim Community by this Bush Administration and then, (the USA extinguished him). This prominent Muslim leader had a vision of an Islamic State.  The Secretary of State argued to the United Nations that a Preemptive strike was warranted against the Iraq Sunni Muslim Administration.  The Bush Administration warned the Iraq Sunni Administration of the planned invasion, the Iraq Sunni Administration responded with clearing Iraq of all evidence of WMD’s.

This was the first Preemptive Strike by USA forces in the history of the USA and set in place the Bush Doctrine ofPreemptive Strikes against Terrorism”.   Our reputation as Preemptive Strikers is now cast in stone on the international scene.  Other non-North Atlantic Treaty Organization (non-NATO) Allies, now live in fear that the Americans will strike first and  are now justified in developing Intercontinental Ballistic Missiles (ICBMs) capable of reaching the shores of the USA.  The USA can no longer be trusted to hold their fire until provoked; The USA has established a policy of First Strike. These nations feel they must create equal forces to  protect themselves from the Americans.

Loss of Freedom and Democracy in the USA

This new “Preemptive Strike Policy” will not only encourage foreign, non-NATO countries to establish a nuclear threat, but terrorist activities against the USA, and Europe, can be expected to continue and increase; threatening the USA’s democracy and freedom, and the freedom of Europeans. The citizens of the USA will lose their freedom to more regulations and controls enacted to prevent terrorism.   The more regulation and laws we have the more Law Enforcers we will have to ensure compliance with these regulations and laws.  The citizens of the USA will become encumbered with more scrutiny from these Law Enforcers.

The Way Forward 

There is only one way forward for the USA and that is to admit to our mistake of a preemptive strike on Iraq and those organizations forming and following a mission to bring the USA to its downfall.   In effect the USA must repent from its sin of “First Strike” and make amends with the enemies created by this “Preemptive Strike Policy”.  The leaders and representatives of the USA must learn the skill of negotiating “Workable Compromises”; that is actions that are not “I–Win, You–lose”, but “I–Win, You–Win agreements or in other words create Treaties with our adversaries in the world.

This is the only action that will save the USA from destruction that has beheld those counties before us whom created a “Preemptive Strike Policy”.  There are too many countries to name in history that have created “First Strike Policy” to name a few: Germany WWII, Germany WWI, the South USA Civil War, the Romans, and the Persians against the Greeks etc., etc. all of these countries or empires were defeated eventually by their First Strike Victims.  The only way forward is for the USA to abandon this Bush Preemptive Strike Policy and start negotiating Treaties representing “Workable Compromises” throughout the world.

 North Korea

A Preemptive Strike on North Korea, which is developing ICBM’s capable of reaching major cities in the USA, will result in an immediate response by North Korea against South Korea, Japan and Guam, a USA territory and major Pacific US Air Base.  This is A NO-WIN SITUATION for all parties concerned.

North Korea is justified in their fear of a Preemptive Strike from the USA.  What do the North Koreans want (?), probably the same thing that Ho Chi Minh wanted in Vietnam, a unified Vietnam without the interference of the USA Military!  Can the USA prevent the North Korean’s from a preemptive strike against South Korea?  It is unlikely that North Korea would move against South Korea with a nuclear weapon and have no interest in a nuclear attack against Japan. The saber rattling, by the North Korean’s, against Guam is probably just that. The North Korean’s know that the USA cannot stop them from developing a nuclear ICBM capability and they are letting the USA see this for a fact!

Cyber-Attack

A cyber-attack to disrupt the production of weapons grade uranium has been used by USA allies against Iran’s centrifuge operations that produce weapons grade uranium.  To initiate a preemptive cyber-attack on North Korea, be its centrifuges or other infrastructure, would certainly result in cyber-attack retaliations by North Korea against the USA’s infrastructure notably the power grid.  North Korea has already demonstrated its ability to disrupt major businesses in the USA.

Restrained USA

The USA is caught in a Military No-Win Situation with North Korea there is no military solution to North Korea’s ICBM capabilities.  The best result will be obtained by negotiations and limiting the access to nuclear materials by North Korea.  In addition, the best result will be a Stand-Off and a long-term policy to improve the USA’s relationship with North Korea; the USA abandoning the Bush Administration’s First Strike Policy; and establish a policy of negotiating workable compromises.   

Q.E.D

Let Your Conscience be Your Guide

Let Your Conscience be Your Guide,  Ver. 2.3.0

The Philosopher

http://gadfly.com/tag/conscience

1/3/2017

Copyright 2017

Definitions [i]

Conscience

1) The sense of what is right and wrong that governs somebody’s thoughts and actions, urging him or her to do right rather than wrong.  2) Behavior, according to what a person’s sense of right and wrong tells them is right.  3)  Psychoanalysis, which is the part of the superego that passes judgment on thought and behavior to the ego for further consideration.

Con-science

1) To cheat somebody dishonestly, usually out of money or property, by first convincing the victim of something that is untrue.  2) To tell somebody something untrue or misleading.  3) To persuade or inveigle somebody to agree to something.  4. A dishonest trick or business ploy that takes advantage of somebody’s trust, such as telling lies in order to get money or property unfairly.  5) An argument against doing something, or evidence supporting the view that something should not be done.

The Source of Conscience

The Creator of the Universe (CoU) was a perfectionist’s perfectionist.   Our knowledge of the universe began its epic journey in 1929 when Edwin Hubble observed, at the Mount Wilson Observatory in southern California, that what were believed to be nebulae (clouds of light) were actually galaxies, and that far off galaxies were exhibiting light in the red spectrum. [ii]  “Hubble’s findings fundamentally changed the scientific view of the universe. Supporters state that Hubble’s discovery of nebulae outside of our galaxy helped pave the way for future astronomers. Yet the reason for the redshift remained unclear. It was Georges Lemaître, a Belgian Catholic priest and physicist, who found that Hubble’s observations supported the Friedmann model of an expanding universe based on Einstein’s equations for General Relativity, which is now known as the Big Bang Theory. This meant the greater the distance between any two galaxies, the greater their relative speed of separation.[iii]  It has been calculated that if the expanding universe expanded at an increased rate of one unit in the fifteenth decimal place, the universe would blow itself up.  If the universe expanded with a decrease of one unit in the fifteenth decimal place, the universe would collapse under the universal force of gravity. [iv] Therefore, the CoU must be a perfectionist’s perfectionist.  In His perfection, the CoU gave the evolved man a brain with wisdom (sapien) and a conscience to guide him through life on his planets.  Questions remain however: When do the Homo sapiens who were given “wisdom” become aware of their conscience?   Is it like “wisdom teeth” that appear in one’s late teens or early twenties, when they progress from being hormonally driven and gain the skill of rational and logical thinking?  Is there another maturity progression when Homo sapiens become aware of their conscience between the ages of thirty-five and thirty-nine?   Are there distractions that prevent the discovery and connection with the conscience, such as background noise like televisions, stereos, radios, MP3 players, headphones, etc.? Or are they age-old teachings handed down from a religious society, instructed by authoritative Homo sapiens to consult a book that has been given authority to guide the Homo sapien to do what is right, a book comprised of the history of the religious society that was groomed to be the landing field for the Representative of the Creator of the Universe (RoCoU), writings of the witnesses of the teachings of the RoCoU who did not themselves know the purpose of this visit from the RoCoU or put their own perspective (spin) to the teachings and purpose of the coming of the RoCoU imparting a religious bent to this visit, or writings of persons to be made a prophet, or other authoritative persons given high position of authority?  There seems to be a great number of reasons why many Homo sapiens do not know they have a conscience let alone knowing how to connect to their conscience to be guided in what action are right and what are wrong.

Jung on the Conscience Connection 

Karl Jung noted in an experiment that he performed on men of various ages in the 1930s, “on their view of God.”  Before the age of thirty-five, the consensus was that “God had no meaning in” the lives of these men. Between the ages of thirty-five and thirty-nine, the consensus was that “God was the most important person” in the lives of these men.  Supposedly, after the age of forty, their views of God did not change; if “God had no meaning” in their lives, He still had no meaning in their lives; if God had become the most important person in their lives, He remained the most important person in their lives.

History of the Conscience

Does this recognition of God, as observed by Jung, mean that the recognition of conscience is a maturing process? And, if it does not happen to everyone, there must have been a seed planted in their minds at some earlier period of their growth?  The RoCoU (a.k.a. Jesus) taught that a seed as small as a mustard seed, when planted, can grow into the largest of plants. [v]  Did He mean that we need to plant the seed of God into our developing Homo sapiens? The mystery continues: How does one become aware of their conscience, a conscience that guides the Homo sapiens to do the right thing?  Socrates is quoted as stating that he was “guided by a Spirit or Daemon[vi]” to keep him from making mistakes”. [vii] This is the only recorded acknowledgement, as per this author, that this phenomenon was personalized up until the delivery of “The Personal Counselor,” a.k.a. Advocate, a.k.a. the Holy Spirit, was delivered, as He, the RoCoU, had promised, on the day of the Pentecost Festival following His crucifixion, resurrection and ascension. [viii]

Let Your Conscience be Your Guide” is a statement as old as history; it did not originate with Jiminy Cricket in Pinocchio in 1940 as many believe.  The writer of 1 John in the Bible disagrees with this statement and believes the conscience can be corrupted; he insists that one must listen to God. “…assumes conscience [or heart] may deceive in much the same way as feelings may deceive. Faith means trusting in God’s love and making ourselves available for its action despite what we may feel. Faith cannot be based on feelings. Nor should its criterion of authenticity be absence of struggle. A troubled conscience or mind may coexist with a life of faith. By shifting the basis for confidence from human feelings and inner harmony to hard faith facts about God and behavior, the author is boycotting a common religious trend, then and now, to make inner human experiences the criteria of spirituality…. It would [also] be wrong to read this passage as devaluing conscience or our thoughts and feelings altogether. They may be a guide, but their quality as guide will be determined by the quality of person who is being guided. The author is not operating with an idealistic notion of conscience as somehow representing the voice of God within….He operates rather with the notion that our thoughts and feelings are part of our own system of awareness which may be misinformed and misguided. There is also a touch of realism in the author’s obvious appreciation that Christians may well at times have to struggle with unresolved tensions within their personalities which have their origin somewhere other than God. There is a profound comfort in the assurance that God is greater than our conscience and knows all (3.20), because this God is the God of love and compassion and may be trusted.”[ix] [x]

The Origin of God’s Word Recorded in Writing

The Development of the Christian Church

The Christian Church had its beginnings on the day of the Pentecost Festival after the death, resurrection and ascension of the RoCoU, and the arrival of the Personal Counselor, Advocate or Holy Spirit.   The first church planters were Peter and Paul. “Two men started the churches; they were Peter and Paul, two different men and two different churches.” [xi]  The new churches grew with many differences in doctrine, practices and traditions over the next three hundred years (e.g.  infant baptism, as baptism was seen as the gateway to Heaven; believers’ baptism or baptism of converts; churches where women played a major role; churches were women were not allowed to participate in the church at all; on what day the Sabbath was, whether on Sunday or Saturday; etc.)  To quote from Gulliver’s Travels (Johnathan Swift, 1726): “Some cracked their eggs on the small end and some cracked their eggs on the large end,” and I suppose some cracked their eggs in the middle.

The Emperor Constantine

While the Roman Emperor Constantine the Great reigned (306–337 AD), Christianity began to transition to the dominant religion of the Roman Empire. Historians remain uncertain about Constantine’s reasons for favoring Christianity, and theologians and historians have argued about which form of Early Christianity he subscribed to. There is no consensus among scholars as to whether he adopted his mother Helena’s Christianity in his youth, or (as claimed by Eusebius of Caesarea) encouraged her to convert to the faith himself. Some scholars question the extent to which he should be considered a Christian emperor: “Constantine saw himself as an ’emperor of the Christian people.’ If this made him a Christian is the subject of … debate.”, although he allegedly received a baptism shortly before his death.

“Constantine’s decision to cease the persecution of Christians in the Roman Empire was a turning point for Early Christianity, sometimes referred to as the Triumph of the Church, the Peace of the Church or the Constantinian shift. In 313, Constantine and Licinius issued the Edict of Milan decriminalizing Christian worship. The emperor became a great patron of the Church and set a precedent for the position of the Christian emperor within the Church and the notion of orthodoxy, Christendom, ecumenical councils and the state church of the Roman Empire declared by edict in 380. He is revered as a saint and isapostolos in the Eastern Orthodox Church and Oriental Orthodox Church for his example as a “Christian monarch.” [xii]

“Constantine wanted a consistent doctrine to be upheld in the Christian Church and the dissenting churches began to disappear or went underground.” [xiii] 

Beyond Constantine and the Evolution of the Christian Church

One of these dissenting churches became known as Anabaptist (meaning re-baptizers).  Baptism of infants predominated in the Constantine Church.  Anabaptist was not a term of endearment but akin to the present-day label of “terrorist,” in that they could be killed on sight.  It was common in this time period to fine the heads of the Anabaptists displayed on a stake for all to see. [xiv]  Anabaptists are today known as Baptists; they were never a part of the Catholic (Constantine Church) but survived through the dark history in isolation.

The Bible Canonized

At this written in the first quarter of the twenty-first century, Christians are being taught to look in the Bible, which is “God’s Word,” to determine right from wrong.  The Bible was canonized at “The Council of Trent, held between 1545 and 1563 in Trento (Trent) and Bologna, northern Italy. [It] was one of the Roman Catholic Church’s most important ecumenical councils.  Prompted by the Protestant Reformation, it has been described as the embodiment of the Counter-Reformation. During its deliberations, the Council made the Vulgate the official example of the Biblical canon and commissioned the creation of a standard version, although this was not achieved until the 1590s.” [xv] Those Gospels chosen for the cannon were consistent with the events of the death, resurrection and ascension of Jesus. “There are four corners of the earth and four winds thus four Gospels”.  The message of the Council of Trent seems to be this sequence of events in the processes of Jesus’s exit from planet Earth.  Are we to consider these writings in this cannon, “The Bible”, as the “Word of God” to be our guide and not our Conscience?

The Nag Hammadi Scriptures [xvi]

“The Nag Hammadi Scriptures is a collection of thirteen papyrus codices-bound books, not scrolls-that were buried near the city of Nag Hammadi in Upper Egypt most likely in the second half of the fourth century CE.” These codices were discovered in 1945 by a gatherer of fertilizer looking for bird droppings.  It is suggested that these writings were considered as apocryphal writings by leaders of the church.  In these codices is the Gospel of Thomas thought to be the “Q”, the missing reference used by the writers of Mathew and Luke because of their similarities.  “The Gospel of Thomas” contains the sayings of Jesus as recorded by His disciples.  “The Secret Letter of James” mentions a meeting of the Apostles where they recalled and documented the saying they recalled or heard from others. James also mentions a visit at this meeting by Jesus, resurrected, that encouraged them to not be afraid of death. This is a revelation by a pseudonym called James at the end of the second century or at the beginning of the third, in Egypt, probably in Alexandria, in a milieu moving toward a break with the official church .

These Nag Hammadi Scriptures were not available at the Council of Trent when the writings were chosen for the cannon. These Codices were like a sealed “Time Capsule” some person(s) thought they were important and should survive whatever cries drove them to this decision.  It can only be speculated that this crisis was the Roman Emperor Constantine’s desire to have only one church doctrine; as the time periods seems to fit these two events.  

The Lutheran Church’s Origin

Luther formed the Lutheran Church in Germany, dissenting from the Catholic Tradition in 1517. “Lutheranism is a major branch of Protestant Christianity which identifies with the theology of Martin Luther (1483-1546), a German friar, ecclesiastical reformer and theologian.

“Luther’s efforts to reform the theology and practice of the Catholic Church launched the Protestant Reformation in the German-speaking territories of the Holy Roman Empire. Beginning with the Ninety-Five Theses, first published in 1517, Luther’s writings were disseminated internationally, spreading the early ideas of the Reformation beyond the influence and control of the Roman Curia and the Holy Roman Emperor. The split between the Lutherans and the Catholics was made public and clear with the 1521 Edict of Worms: the edicts of the Diet condemned Luther and officially banned citizens of the Holy Roman Empire from defending or propagating his ideas, subjecting advocates of Lutheranism to forfeiture of all property, half of the seized property to be forfeit to the imperial government and the remaining half forfeit to the party who brought the accusation.  The divide centered primarily on two points: the proper source of authority in the church, often called the formal principle of the Reformation, and the doctrine of justification, often called the material principle.” [xvii]

The Origin of the Protestant Bible

“The King James Version (KJV), also known as the Authorized Version (AV) or the King James Bible (KJB), is an English translation of the Christian Bible for the Church of England begun in 1604 and completed in 1611.  The books of the King James Version include the 39 books of the Old Testament, an intertestamental section containing 14 books of the Apocrypha, and the 27 books of the New Testament.

“It was first printed by the King’s Printer Robert Barker and was the third translation into English, approved by the English Church authorities. The first had been the Great Bible, commissioned in the reign of King Henry VIII (1535), and the second had been the Bishops’ Bible of 1568.  In January 1604, James VI and I convened the Hampton Court Conference, where a new English version was conceived in response to the problems of the earlier translations perceived by the Puritans, a faction of the Church of England.  The translation is noted for its “majesty of style”, and has been described as one of the most important books in English culture.

“James gave the translators instructions intended to ensure that the new version would conform to the ecclesiology and reflect the episcopal structure of the Church of England and its belief in an ordained clergy.” By the first half of the 18th century, the Authorized Version had become effectively unchallenged as the English translation used in Anglican and English Protestant churches, except for the Psalms and some short passages in the Book of Common Prayer of the Church of England. Over the course of the 18th century, the Authorized Version supplanted the Latin Vulgate as the standard version of scripture for English-speaking scholars.” [xviii]

The Word of God

The King James Bible and its many translations into Modern English are now promoted by Protestant and Baptist Churches as the “Word of God.”  This is where Christians are to look to determine what actions are right and which are wrong.  Is the Bible then to be used to program the conscience as to what actions are right and which are wrong?  Which does one depend on for guidance – “God’s Written Word” or their own conscience programed in-turn by the Personal Counselor, Advocate, and/or the Holy Spirit?

The Origin of “Let your Conscience be Your Guide”

This is a statement from Caliph Umar’s prayer at Jabiah, after surrender of Jerusalem during the second Crusade: “Do not hesitate to say what you consider to be the truth. Say what you feel. Let your conscience be your guide” (Islamic Cir. 1189). However, Umar also encourages those under his protectorate to follow the teaching in the Quran, which has been given authority equal to if not superior to the conscience.[xix] [xx] Does one of Islamic faith than follow their conscience or the Quran? Or is the Quran used to program the conscience?

Pavlov’s Conditioned Response Visited

“Classical conditioning is now the best understood of the basic learning processes, and its neural substrates are beginning to be understood.” [xxi]  Could these declared authoritative documents; the Bible and the Koran, be used to condition the readers response to their Conscience?  In other words is our Conscience programmable as in computer language “Garbage in-Garbage out”? Should we be looking to our Conscience for guidance or to some other authoritative source?  This writers opinion is that the Conscience is the most reliable source of guidance when it is in connection with the Personal Counselor, Advocate or Holy Spirit sent to us by the RoCoU.

The Founding Fathers of the USA

The Founding Fathers of the USA stipulated that the President of the USA must be at least thirty-five years of age to hold that office.  Therefore, the Founding Fathers must have had some information regarding the maturity factor of establishing contact with one’s conscience.

The Historical Data Summarized 

This historical data certainly indicates that, throughout history, there was a sense of a “Guiding Conscience.” 

Our Expanded Knowledge of the Universe and Life

These discoveries have led us to the present, with the Hubble, Kepler telescopes, and other space-based instruments, determining that there are approximately four billion planets orbiting a sun (star) in the “Goldilocks Zone” (not too hot, not too cold), enabling water to exist in the liquid state and approximately one hundred thousand of these planets in the Milky Way Galaxy.  Given water, salt, amino acids and oxygen, life of one cell can be created that rapidly divides and multiplies and grows into the many shapes and sizes, of biological species, that we observe today. [xxii]

The Role of Evolution and Creation

The evolved spices of form and function to the Homo species might then be given “wisdom” by the CoU, and thus a conscience to guide them through life on that planet, thus becoming Homo sapiens (sapien means “wise”).   With their wisdom, they create all sorts of religions, based on monotheism, multi-theism, chief gods and servant gods – some demanding sacrifices, both dead and alive, even virgins to please their gods.  They look to their gods and written documents for guidance and to know right from wrong.

The Process on Earth and Other Planets

Therefore, we on planet Earth are not alone in the universe; life is evolving or has evolved on other planets in the universe just as on planet Earth.  When the time, conditions and a landing field for the RoCoU, have developed (a monotheist society, communities, communication networks, etc.), the RoCoU would likely be sent to that planet as a seed planted in a virgin and the RoCoU would grow up in that society and become a respected teacher.  He would then teach a small group of disciples, possible an even dozen, and others who follow Him, how to live on that planet successfully, how to get their basic needs of food, shelter and clothing met, and how to get along in peace with each other and in peace, as a nation, with other nations.   He would even teach them how to connect with the conscience that the CoU implanted in them when He gave them wisdom and became Homo sapiens (wise homos).  Being a religious society, they created another religion with the RoCoU (under a different name like Jesus) as the head of this religion.  This religion expands to cover the planet.  Technology and science evolve and progress until they discover that the head of their church (a.k.a. Jesus) is really the Representative from the Creator of the Universe (RoCoU) and they learn to connect to their conscience for guidance, rather than ancient writings, and religion becomes an artifact in their societies and there is peace between individuals and nations until the end of time for this planet.

The Evolution of the Universe

Suns are born of a seed and, under the universal force of gravity, matter scattered throughout the universe, by the death of a previous sun or the Big Bang and this matter is gathered to this seed including hydrogen, which is in abundance in the universe. When the seed has enough hydrogen gathered, through the force of gravity a nuclear reaction fusing the nuclei of the hydrogen atoms together, releasing much energy and forming helium, the mass of this new sun will continue to grow clearing its space of gravitational influence of all matter.  Planets will form from seeds of matter as well and will clear their space of material within their gravitational influence.  The centripetal force produced by the orbit of these planets around the sun counterbalances the gravity of the sun and they come to equilibrium in an orbit around the sun.

As the sun consumes the hydrogen fuel, its ability to counterbalance the force of gravity and consequently be compressed into either a Black Hole (a.k.a. Black Energy) or will rebound and expel its gathered and remanufactured contents (The Table of Elements) back into the universe.  In this way, suns are like biological plants, as they are born of a seed, grow and mature, live a full and useful life, die and reproduce themselves many times over.  The universe, in turn, began as a seed and with The Big Bang and is expanding and creating new galaxies to fill the voids created by its expansion, thus also acting as if a living plant. [xxiii]

Religion a Phenomena of Ancient History

When we compare religion to our increased knowledge of the universe since the early twentieth century from our space probes, we become aware that we now know more than any generation before us about the creation of the universe and its Creator, and religion needs to be filed into the history books as being part of our past!  It is time for the inhabitants of planet Earth to move forward, trusting in their Creator who has given conscience for guidance.  He has put the books of knowledge about what is right and what is wrong, and been given absolute authority by the Homo sapiens as part of a religious sect, onto the book shelves as informative information and not absolute commands for knowing the right from the wrong.  Let us move on from worshipping our God (the creator) or our gods and our books of authority to, as Jiminy Cricket said, “Let your conscience be your guide.”  The RoCoU sent us a Personal Counselor who communicates to us through our conscience.  Prior to this event, which took place at the Pentecost Festival following the RoCoU’s return to His home base somewhere in the Universe; Homo sapiens did not have this advantage and made some bad choices. x

The Path to Peace on Earth

To achieve “Peace on Earth,” we need to move from trusting in religion and get everyone on the same page, trusting in their conscience which is guided by the Personal Counselor sent to us by the RoCoU.  This is not religion but is, in fact, science and “science tells you the truth whether you like it or not!” [xxiv] The RoCoU did not expect us to worship him as God or as the Creator of the Universe; He came to show us how to live on this planet and communicate with our conscience which, in turn, is guided by His Personal Counselor.

QED

“God has provided a way, but man continually creates his own way.” – Proverbs

 

 

[i] Definitions of Conscience and Con-science are from various dictionaries.

[ii] Doppler Effect physics: “An increase (or decrease) in the frequency of sound, light, or other waves as the source and observer move toward (or away from) each other. The effect causes the sudden change in pitch noticeable in a passing siren, as well as the redshift seen by astronomers.” Oxford Dictionaries

[iii] https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Edwin_Hubble#The_universe_goes_beyond_the_Milky_Way_galaxy

[iv] Stephen Hawkins, “The Universe”, BBC, 1997, PBS Distribution

[v] https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Parable_of_the_Mustard_Seed

[vi] (In ancient Greek belief) a divinity or supernatural being of a nature between gods and humans

[vii] https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Socrates

[viii] https://www.biblegateway.com/passage/?search=John+14:16-18&version=NIV, https://www.biblegateway.com/passage/?search=John+14%3A26-27&version=NIV , https://www.biblegateway.com/passage/?search=John+16%3A7-11&version=NIV

[ix] http://www.beliefnet.com/columnists/bibleandculture/2005/07/let-your-conscience-be-your-guide-not-exactly.html

[x] http://catholicexchange.com/letting-your-conscience-be-your-guide-what-jiminy-cricket-didn%e2%80%99t-tell-you

[xi] My Mother Cir. 1962

[xii] https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Constantine_the_Great_and_Christianity

[xiii] “From Jesus to Christ” “The First Christians”, WGBH Educational Foundation, 1998; Frontline, PBS Distribution

[xiv] “The Little Red Book”, Anabaptist Cir. unknown

[xv] https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Council_of_Trent

[xvi] Marvin Meyer, editor, The Nag Hammadi Scriptures, The International Edition, HarperOne, 2007

[xvii] https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Lutheranism

[xviii] https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/King_James_Version

[xix] http://www.cyberistan.org/islamic/umar.html

[xx] http://www.sermoncentral.com/sermons/let-your-conscience-be-your-guide-david-dykes-sermon-on-apologetics-general-96265

[xxi] https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Classical_conditioning

[xxii] Stephen Hawkins, Genius, PBS Distribution, 2016

[xxiii] Ibid iv

[xxiv] An Astro Physicist’s statement about the Universe Cir. 2016

Firstborn and Middleborn Presidents and Wars

Firstborn and Middleborn Presidents and Wars Ver. 1.2.2

The Gadfly

https://gadflyblog.wordpress.com/tag/president’s-styles/

9/9/2016

Copyright 2016

Introduction

One’s birth order in their family of origin can identify basic skills that were learned from the environment that one was exposed to in their developing years. The firstborns tend toward leadership skills with either “compliant” or “controlling” personalities; middleborns tend toward a personality using a negotiating style of communication and problem-solving. [i]

The firstborn presidents of the USA are numerous and many were involved in wars *.

 

Functional Only Child Oldest Child Oldest Male Functional Oldest Male
Andrew Jackson John Adams *Thomas Jefferson *George Washington
*Abraham Lincoln *James Madison John Quincy Adams
Herbert Hoover *James Monroe Martin Van Buren
*Franklin D. Roosevelt *James K. Polk Millard Fillmore
Gerald R. Ford *Ulysses S. Grant James Buchanan
*Bill Clinton  

Chester Alan Arthur

Theodore Roosevelt Calvin Coolidge
*Harry S. Truman
*Lyndon B. Johnson
Jimmy Carter
*George W. Bush

 

 

There were several middleborn presidents, several of whom ended wars *.

 

Middle Born
John Tyler
Zachary Taylor
Franklin Pierce
*G. Cleveland
Benjamin Harrison
*William McKinley
W. H. Taft
*Dwight D. Eisenhower
*John F. Kennedy
*Richard Nixon
*George Herbert Walker Bush

 The question of the day is: “Are firstborn Presidents more likely to be involved in a war and are middleborn Presidents more likely to end a war?” [ii]

Early Biography of Presidential Candidates

Hillary Clinton, Democratic Party

Hillary Diane Rodham was born on October 26, 1947, at Edgewater Hospital in Chicago, Illinois.  She was raised in a United Methodist family, first in Chicago and then, from the age of three, in suburban Park Ridge, Illinois.  Her father, Hugh Ellsworth Rodham (1911–1993), was of Welsh and English descent; he managed a successful small business in the textile industry. Her mother, Dorothy Emma Howell (1919–2011), was a homemaker of English, Scottish, French-Canadian, and Welsh descent.  Hillary has two younger brothers, Hugh and Tony.” [iii]

Hillary qualifies as a firstborn, but the question is: “Is she a compliant firstborn or a controlling firstborn?” [iv] The data on firstborn presidents does not contain any data on female firstborn presidents.  A look at the other female world leaders below may offer some insight to predicted decision-making styles of the female politician.  Hillary is running on a platform of, “I will fight for you,” meaning she will fight to give sectors of the population federal benefits in exchange for votes.  The Greek democracy has been bailed out of bankruptcy by the European Union twice in recent years.  The Greek politicians, who wanted political power, promised more government benefits to their voters.  The Greeks now have more people on government benefits than they do people paying taxes to support them, thus financial ruin.

Donald Trump, Republican Party

“Donald John Trump was born in 1946 in Queens, New York City, the fourth of five children of Frederick C. and Mary MacLeod Trump. Frederick Trump was a builder and real estate developer who specialized in constructing and operating middle income apartments in the Queens, Staten Island, and Brooklyn sections of New York. Donald Trump was an energetic and bright child, and his parents sent him to the New York Military Academy at age thirteen, hoping the discipline of the school would channel his energy in a positive manner. Trump did well at the academy, both socially and academically, rising to be a star athlete and student leader by the time he graduated in 1964.” [v]

Donald Trump qualifies as a middleborn child; the die of his personality should have been cast by age twelve.  Being raised in the middle, he would have developed negotiating skills, mostly negotiating for his own space. [vi]

Gary Johnson, Libertarian Party

Johnson was born on January 1, 1953, in Minot, North Dakota, the son of Lorraine B. (née Bostow), who worked for the Bureau of Indian Affairs, and Earl W. Johnson, a public school teacher. In 1971, Johnson graduated from Sandia High School in Albuquerque, where he was on the school track team.  He attended the University of New Mexico from 1971 to 1975 and graduated with a Bachelor of Science degree in political science. While at UNM, he joined the Sigma Alpha Epsilon fraternity.  It was there that he met his future wife, Denise “Dee” Simms.

“While in college, Johnson earned money as a door-to-door handyman.  His success in that industry encouraged him to start his own business, Big J Enterprises, in 1976. When he started the business, which focused on mechanical contracting, Johnson was its only employee.  His firm’s major break came when he received a large contract from Intel’s expansion in Rio Rancho, which increased Big J’s revenue to $38 million.

“Overburdened by his success, Johnson enrolled in a time management course at night school, which he credits with making him heavily goal driven.  He eventually grew Big J into a multimillion-dollar corporation with over 1,000 employees.  By the time he sold the company in 1999, it was one of New Mexico’s leading construction companies.” [vii]

There is no mention of siblings of Gary Johnson, but it is interesting to note the youngest brother of George W. Bush is one of his ardent supporters.  This certainly looks like a firstborn and lastborn natural relationship.  No mention of a sibling leads to the conclusion that Gary is an only child.

There are a finite number of personalities that have been created all through history; we just keep on reproducing these same personalities with different faces, like Barack Obama and George W. Bush [viii]  who can be considered as functional only children (this is true for Bush, as there is more than five years between him and his next younger brother, Jeb Bush).Barack Obama is a functional only child, as he was raised separate from his siblings and by a single mother/grandmother.  Therefore, when George W. Bush entered into a war in Iraq and Afghanistan and Barack Obama expanded these wars with ISIS-ISIL, we did not change the personality of our president, but only changed the face of the president.  Gary Johnson, as an only child, would only change the face of the president again, not the personality of the president and he would probably expand the wars in the Middle East.

Jill Stein, Green Party

“Jill Stein was born in Chicago, the daughter of Gladys (née Wool) and Joseph Stein, and was raised in Highland Park, Illinois. She is Jewish, and her family attended Chicago’s North Shore Congregation Israel, a Reform synagogue.  Her parents were both from Russian Jewish families and Stein was raised in a Reform Jewish household, but now considers herself agnostic.  Stein is married to Richard Rohrer, who is also a physician. They live in Lexington, Massachusetts, and have two adult sons.

“In 1973, Stein graduated magna cum laude from Harvard, where she studied psychology, sociology, and anthropology. She then attended Harvard Medical School and graduated in 1979. After graduating from Harvard Medical School, Stein practiced internal medicine for 25 years at Beth Israel Deaconess Medical Center, Simmons College Health Center, and Harvard Pilgrim Health Care, and also served as an instructor of medicine at Harvard Medical School. She retired from practicing and teaching medicine in 2005 and 2006, respectively.” [ix]

There is no mention of siblings in this bio; therefore we can only conclude that Jill Stein is an only child.  Only children are well known for their academic achievements; Jill certainly qualifies as an “only” on this count, as she is very academically accomplished.  Therefore the question remains: Are we going to change the personality of the president or only the face and sex of the president?

Notable Female World Leaders and Conflict


Margaret Thatcher, Prime Minister of the United Kingdom


“Thatcher was born Margaret Hilda Roberts on 13 October 1925, in Grantham, Lincolnshire. Her father was Alfred Roberts, originally from Northamptonshire, and her mother was Beatrice Ethel (née Stephenson) from Lincolnshire.   She spent her childhood in Grantham, where her father owned two grocery shops. She and her older sister Muriel (1921–2004) were raised in the flat above the larger of the two, on North Parade. 

“Margaret Roberts attended Huntingtower Road Primary School and won a scholarship to Kesteven and Grantham Girls’ School.  Her school reports showed hard work and continual improvement; her extracurricular activities included the piano, field hockey, poetry recitals, swimming and walking.  She was head girl in 1942–43.[x]   As the younger of two sisters, Margaret would develop a more social and athletic personality.”

In the 1990, Margaret Thatcher was the Prime Minister of Great Britain when Saddam Hussein, the political leader of Iraq, invaded his neighbor oil producing country of Kuwait.   Margaret was heard broadcasting on the air that, “We are going to nuke you.”  This was the last we heard from Margaret on politics.

Golda Meir, Prime Minister of Israel

“Golda Mabovitch (Ukrainian: Ґольда Мабович) was born on May 3, 1898, in Kiev, Russian Empire, present-day Ukraine, to Blume Neiditch (died 1951) and Moshe Mabovitch (died 1944), a carpenter. Meir wrote in her autobiography that her earliest memories were of her father boarding up the front door in response to rumors of an imminent pogrom. She had two sisters, Sheyna (1889-1972) and Tzipke (1902-1981), as well as five other siblings who died in childhood. She was especially close to Sheyna.

Moshe Mabovitch left to find work in New York City in 1903.  In his absence, the rest of the family moved to Pinsk to join her mother’s family. In 1905, Moshe moved to Milwaukee, Wisconsin, in search of higher-paying work and found employment in the workshops of the local railroad yard. The following year, he had saved up enough money to bring his family to the United States.”

Golda Meir, before 1910

“Blume ran a grocery store on Milwaukee’s north side, where by age eight Golda had been put in charge of watching the store when her mother went to the market for supplies. Golda attended the Fourth Street Grade School (now Golda Meir School) from 1906 to 1912. A leader early on, she organized a fund raiser to pay for her classmates’ textbooks. After forming the American Young Sisters Society, she rented a hall and scheduled a public meeting for the event. She went on to graduate as valedictorian of her class.

“At 14, she studied at North Division High School and worked part-time. Her mother wanted her to leave school and marry, but she demurred. She bought a train ticket to Denver, Colorado, and went to live with her married sister, Sheyna Korngold. The Korngolds held intellectual evenings at their home, where Meir was exposed to debates on Zionism, literature, women’s suffrage, trade unionism, and more. In her autobiography, she wrote: “To the extent that my own future convictions were shaped and given form […] those talk-filled nights in Denver played a considerable role.” In Denver, she also met Morris Meyerson (also ‘Myerson’; December 17, 1893 – May 25, 1951), a sign painter, whom she later married on December 24, 1917.” [xi]

Golda was nine years younger than her older sister and four years older than her younger sister.  This family position would make her the second firstborn, as there is more than five years between her and her older sister.  The fact that she was put in charge of the grocery store when her mother was absent leads to the conclusion she was treated as an oldest sibling.  This position in the family would certainly put her in the ranks of academic achiever, which she was.  It is a stretch to put her as a middleborn child with a sister nine years older and a sister four years younger, where she would have developed negotiating skills. [xii]   She was known as the Iron Lady of Israeli politics.[xiii]   It was during her tenure that Israel acted in revenge against the Germans responsible for the Holocaust.

Yom Kippur War

“Meir approved full scale mobilizing but sided with Dayan against a preemptive strike, citing Israel’s need for foreign aid. She believed that Israel could not depend on European countries to supply Israel with military equipment, and the only country that might come to Israel’s assistance was the United States. Fearing that the United States would be wary of intervening if Israel were perceived as initiating the hostilities, Meir decided early on October 6 against a preemptive strike. She made it a priority to inform Washington of her decision. U.S. Secretary of State Henry Kissinger later confirmed Meir’s assessment by stating that if Israel had launched a preemptive strike, Israel would not have received so much as a nail.”

Resignation

“Following the Yom Kippur War, Meir’s government was plagued by infighting and questions over Israel’s lack of preparation for the war. The Agranat Commission appointed to investigate the war cleared her of direct responsibility, and related to her actions on Yom Kippur morning.

“She decided wisely, with common sense and speedily, in favor of the full mobilization of the reserves, as recommended by the chief-of-staff, despite weighty political considerations, thereby performing a most important service for the defense of the state.” [xiv]

Conclusion

In reality we have two choices for the next president of the USA.  One Candidate is a Firstborn Female with younger brothers who wants political power and is willing to give out federal government benefits in exchange for votes (“I will fight for you”), but she is somewhat an unknown in regard to her ability to extricate us from the war with ISIS-ISILThe Second Candidate is a Middleborn Male with negotiating skills – albeit on a “I win, you lose” basis – but a good start in negotiating workable compromises, which is the key to successful relationships with our neighbors foreign and domestic. [xv] And there is significant evidence, in our history of middleborn presidents, that he can extricate us from this war with ISIS-ISIL. 

 

[i] http://drleman.com/

[ii]http://retiary.org/misc_pages/us_presidents_and_wars.html/

[iii] https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Hillary_Clinton#Early_life/

[iv] Ibid i

[v] http://www.notablebiographies.com/St-Tr/Trump-Donald.html/

[vi] Ibid i

[vii] https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Gary_Johnson#Early_life_and_career/

[viii] Ester 5: 9-14, The Bible, Old Testament

[ix] https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Jill_Stein#Early_life_and_education/

[x] https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Margaret_Thatcher#Early_life_and_education/

[xi] https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Golda_Meir#Early_life/

[xii] Ibid i

[xiii] Ibid xi

[xiv] Ibid xi

[xv]  Matthew 7:2, The Bible

[xv] Matthew 5:25, The Bible

[xv] Luke 14:31-32, The Bible
[xv] https://gadflyblog.wordpress.com/tag/gadfly/